Commercial loans underwritten on a case by case basis. Every loan application is unique and evaluated on its own merits, but there are a few common criteria lenders look for in commercial loan packages.
Financial Anaylsis: A key component in making an underwriting evaluation is the debt coverage ratio. The DCR is defined as the monthly debt compared to the net monthly income of the investment property in question. Using a DCR of 1:1.10 a lender is saying that they are looking for a $1.10 in net income for each $1.00 mortgage payment. Typically they will determine the DCR ratio based on monthly figures, the monthly mortgage payment compared to the monthly net income. The higher the DCR ratio the more conservative the lender. Most lenders will never go below a 1:1 ratio ( a dollar of debt payment per dollar of income generated). Anything less then a 1:1 ratio will result in a negative cash flow situation raising the risk of the loan for the lender. DCR’s are set by property type and what a lender perceives the risk to be. Today, apartment properties are considered to be the least risky category of investment lending. As such, lenders are more inclined to use smaller DCR’s when evaluating a loan request. Make sure that you are familiar with a lender’s DCR policy prior to spending money on an application. Ask them to give you a preliminary review of the investment property that you want to purchase. Information is free, mistakes are not.
Loan to Value: Unlike residential lending, commercial investment properties are viewed more conservatively. Most lenders will require a minimum of 20% of the purchase price to be paid by the buyer. The remaining 80% can be in the form of a mortgage provided by either bank or mortgage company. Some commercial mortgage lenders will require more than 20% contribution towards the purchase from the buyer. What a bank/lender will do is subject to their appetite and the quality of the buyer and the property. Loan to value is the percentage calculation of the loan amount divided by purchase price. If you know what a lender’s LTV requirements are, you can also calculate the loan amount by multiplying the purchase price by the LTV percentage. Keep in mind that the purchase price must also be supported by an appraisal. In the event that the appraisal shows a value less then the purchase price, the lender will use the lower of the two numbers to determine the loan that will be made.
Credit Worthiness: For businesses less than three years old, personal credit of principals will be evaluated. This may hold true for longer periods of time for tightly held companies. For corporations, business performance and credit ratings will be evaluated with a proven track record.
Property Analysis: Fair Market Value and Fair Market Rent will be analyzed. Special use property may require additional underwriting. Age, appearance, local market, location, and accessibility are some other factors considered.
Commercial Loan ratios
Most of real estate lending can be boiled down to the results of three ratios: Loan-To-Value Ratio, Debt Ratio and Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR). The bulk of the energy spent “processing” a loan is merely an attempt to verify the numbers that go into the numerator and denominator of the above 3 ratios.
The Loan-To-Value Ratio (LTVR): Loan-To-Value = Total loan balances (1st mtg+2nd mtg+3rd mtg) / Fair market value (as determined by appraisal). Loan-To-Value Ratios seldom exceed 80% because the lender always want some extra protection against default.
The Debt Ratio: The second ratio that lenders use when underwriting a loan is the Debt Ratio. The Debt Ratio compares the amount of bills that the borrower must pay each month to the amount of monthly income he earns. More precisely, the Debt Ratio is defined as:
Debt Ratio = Monthly Debt Obligations / Monthly Income. Obviously someone whose Debt Ratio is 150% is in trouble. A Debt Ratio of 150% would mean that a borrower’s obligations are one and a half times his income. Debt Ratios seldom are allowed to exceed 40% in practice.
Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR): The final ratio used in lending is the Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR). The Debt Service Coverage Ratio is a sophisticated ratio only used for large loans on income producing properties. It is defined as: Debt Service Coverage Ratio = Net Operating Income / Debt Service
Net Operating Income is the income from a rental property after deducting for real estate taxes, fire insurance, repairs, and all other operating expenses; and Debt Service is the mortgage payment on the property. Most lenders insist that this ratio exceed 1.0. A debt service coverage ratio of less than 1.0 would mean that the property did not produce enough net rental income for the owner to make the mortgage payments without supplementing the property from his personal budget.
Commercial LTV Ratio
The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is probably the most important of the 3 underwriting ratios.
The loan-to-value ratio is defined as: LTV Ratio = Total Loan Balances (1st mtg+2nd mtg +3rd mtg) / Fair Market Value of the Property
First let’s look at the numerator. If the borrower is only applying for a first mortgage, and there will be no other loans on the property, then the beginning balance of the new loan requested should be inserted in the numerator.
However, if the borrower is applying for a second mortgage, then the “underwriter” (the person who determines whether or not the loan qualifies) should insert the sum of the first and second mortgages in the numerator. Similiarly, if the borrower is applying for a third mortgage, then the underwriter should insert the sum of the first, second and third mortgages into the numerator.
When the borrower is applying for a second or third mortgage, the loan-to-value ratio is often known as the combined loan-to-value ratio (CLTV ratio).
Now let’s look at the denominator. Generally the fair market value of a property is determined by an appraisal. There is one important exception, however. When the proceeds of a mortgage loan are used to buy the same property that is securing the loan, then that mortgage is known as a “purchase money loan.” If the appraisal comes in lower than the purchase price in a “purchase money” transaction, then the lender will use the LOWER of the purchase price or appraisal.
Mortgage brokers are often asked by real estate agents and buyers to base their loan on the appraised value rather than the purchase price. Their claim is that they have negotiated a super deal and that the property is worth much more than what they are paying for it. This may be so (although generally untrue), but lenders always base their maximum loan on the lower of purchase price or appraisal. The lender’s argument (its their money, so there is really very little argument) is that an appraisal is really no more than an estimate of fair market value, no matter how competent or conscientious the appraiser may be. The only true indicator of value is the marketplace in which “a willing buyer and a willing seller, each in full knowledge of the salient facts, and neither under undue pressure, agree upon terms.” If the property sells for “X,” then it is probably only worth “X.”
Commercial debt ratios
When analyzing the personal budget of a borrower, lenders use two different debt ratios to determine if the borrower can afford his obligations. These two debt ratios are: Top Debt Ratio and Bottom Debt Ratio
The “top” debt ratio is defined as: Top Debt Ratio = Monthly Housing Expense/Gross Monthly Income.
By “monthly housing expense” we mean either the borrower’s monthly rent payments, or if she owns her own home, the total of the following –
Monthly Housing Expense
1st mortgage payment on home plus
Real estate taxes (annual cost/12) plus
Fire insurance (annual cost/12) plus
Homeowner’s association dues(if home is a condo or townhouse) plus
Second mortgage payment (if any) plus
Third mortgage payment (if any).
You will often hear the term P.I.T.I. It refers to (P)rincipal, (I)nterest, (T)axes and (I)nsurance. While P.I.T.I. is not exactly the same as Monthly Housing Expense because it does not include homeowner’s association dues, the two terms are often used interchangably.
Lenders have learned over the years that a borrower’s “top” debt ratio should not exceed 25%. In other words, a person’s housing expense should not exceed 1/4 of his income. While lenders will often stretch this number to as high as 28%, traditional lending theory maintains that anyone with a debt ratio in excess of 25% stands a good chance of developing budget problems.
The second ratio that lenders use to determine if a borrower can afford her obligations is the “bottom” debt ratio. It is defined as follows: Bottom Debt Ratio = (Total Housing Expense + Debt Payments)/Gross Monthly Income
The only difference between the two ratios is the inclusion in the numerator of “debt payments.” Debt payments include the following:
Charge card payments
Payments on installment loans, for example – a payment on a washer & dryer that the borrower purchased.
Payments on personal loans, for example – a signature loan from the borrower’s bank.
What is not included in “debt payments” is Utilities such as PG&E, water or telephone and payments on real estate loans. Real estate loans are usually offset first by the net rental income from the property. If the borrower has a net positive cash flow from all his rentals, then the net income is usually added to his “gross monthly income.” If the borrower has a net negative cash flow from all of his rental properties, then the amount of the negative cash flow is usually added to the numerator of the “bottom” debt ratio as if it were a monthly debt obligation, like a car payment.
Traditional lending theory maintains that a borrower’s “bottom” debt ratio should not exceed 33 1/3%. In other words, the total of the borrower’s housing expense and debt obligations should not exceed 1/3 of his income. Lenders often will stretch on this ratio to as high as 36%, and some have even been known to stretch as high as 40% or more. Obviously a loan with a debt ratio of 40% is a far more risky loan than a loan with a debt ratio of 32%.
Commercial debt service ratio
The most important ratio to understand when making income property loans is the debt service coverage ratio. It is defined as:
DSCR = Net Operating Income (NOI) / Total Debt Service
To understand the ratio it is first necessary to understand the numerator and the denominator. Let’s take a look at net operating income (NOI) first.
Net operating income is the income from a rental property left over after paying all of the operating expenses:
Gross Scheduled Rents $100,000
Less 5% Vacancy & Collection Loss $5,000
Effective Gross Income: $95,000
Less Operating Expenses
Real Estate Taxes
Repairs & Maintenance
Reserves for Replacement
Total Operating Expenses: $30,000
Net Operating Income (NOI) $65,000
Please note that lenders always insist on some sort of vacancy factor regardless of the actual vacancy rate in an area to cover collection loss. In addition lenders always insist on using a management factor of 3-6% of effective gross income, even if the property is owner-managed. Their logic is that they would have to pay for management if they took back the property. Finally, NOTE THAT WE HAVE NOT INCLUDED LOAN PAYMENTS AS AN OPERATING EXPENSE.
Next let’s look at the denominator, Total Debt Service. This includes the principal and interest payments of all loans on the poperty, not just the first mortgage. NOTE THAT WE HAVE NOT INCLUDED TAXES AND INSURANCE. They were already accounted for above when we arrived at net operating income (NOI).
To calculate the debt service coverage ratio, simply divide the net operating income (NOI) by the mortgage payment(s). For the sake of simplicity, let us assume that there is only one mortgage on the property:
$500,000 First Mortgage
11% Interest, 30 years amortized
Annual Payment (Debt Service) = $57,139
DSCR = Net Operating Income (NOI) = $65,000
Total Debt Service $57,139
DSCR = 1.14
Obviously the higher the DSCR, the more net operating income is available to service the debt. From a lender’s viewpoint it should be clear that they want as high a DSCR as possible.
The borrower, on the other hand, wants as large a loan as possible. The larger the loan, the higher the debt service (mortgage payments). If the net operating income stays the same, and the loan size and therefore the debt service increases, then the lower the DSCR will be.
Life insurance companies are very conservative and generally require a 1.25 or 1.35 DSCR. This means that their loan-to-value ratios are low. Savings and loans (S&L’s) generally only require a 1.20 DSCR, and sometimes will accept a DSCR as low as 1.10.
A DSCR of 1.0 is called a breakeven cash flow. That is because the net operating income (NOI) is just enough to cover the mortgage payments (debt service).
A DSCR of less than 1.0 would be a situation where there would actually be a negative cash flow. A DSCR of say .95 would mean that there is only enough net operating income (NOI) to cover 95% of the mortgage payment. This would mean that the borrower would have to come up with cash out of his personal budget every month to keep the project afloat.
Generally lenders frown on a negative cash flow. Some lenders will allow a negative cash flow if the loan-to-value ratio is less than around 65%, the borrower has strong outside income such as an electronic engineer, and the size of the negative is small. Lenders rarely allow negative cash flows on loans over $200,000.
Questions to ask yourself
Are you and your business credit worthy? Your personal and business credit ratings will be analyzed.
What kind of money do you require? Short, long, intermediate term money or equity capital.
How much money do your need? Present exactly what you need and what it is for.
Do you have sufficient collateral? Your collateral must equal the loan amount at a minimum.
What are the Lender’s rules? Ask about Loan to Value’s and Debt Coverage Ratios.
What kinds of limitations will be set by you? Know your comfort level with rate, payment, and term.
Myths and facts about SBA loans
Myth: It takes four to six months to get a SBA Loan processed.
Fact: Completed loan applications from banks average 10 working days.
Myth: SBA only provides free business counseling to business people with SBA loans.
Fact: SBA provides free business counseling to all business people.
Myth: SBA provides no assistance in helping a business get federal contracts from the government.
Fact: SBA has procurement assistance at Small Business Development Centers across the country.
Myth: A business person can get cheaper interest rates for business loans from SBA.
Fact: SBA does not provide lower interest rates for small business people. Interest rates are negotiable with the bank, but are limited to 2.25% above the prime rate in the Wall Street Journal for loans with maturities of less than 7 years, and limited 2.75% with maturities of 7 years or more.
Myth: Small loans are not available through SBA.
Fact: SBA provides an incentive to banks to make loans under $50,000 by reducing their guarantee fee by half.
Myth: SBA has no specialized programs to assist minority business persons.
Fact: SBA’s 8(a) and 7(j) programs provide specialized management and technical assistance to minorities.
Myth: There are few SBA loan programs.
Fact: SBA finance programs provide a wide spectrum of opportunities including Guaranteed Loan, Handicapped Assistance, Contract Loan, Veterans Loan, Exported Revolving LOC, and Small Business ($50,000 and less).
Myth: SBA has no programs to assist veterans.
Fact: SBA gives veterans priority when their loan application arrives in the office or when they need business counseling to start a small business.
Myth: SBA has grants to start or expand a small business.
Fact: SBA has NO grant program to start or expand a small business.
Myth: Contractors receive no assistance from SBA.
Fact: SBA’s Surety Bond Guarantee Program assists contractors with their Bid Bond, Performance Bond, and Payment Bond.
Financial readiness checklist
The following list will help you identify the types of information a banker will need to make an informed decision about your business.
- Three years income tax and financial statements
- Year-To-Date Profit & Loss and Balance Statement
- Personal Finance Statements
- Projected Cash Flow Statements for next 12 Months
- Pro Forma for next 12 Months/Length of Loan
- Federal and State Taxes Information
- Collateral Sheet
- Well Written Business Plan